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In the documentary, "O. Made in America," a journalist tells a story about overhearing a white woman at a restaurant say, "Look, there's O. Simpson was living proof of the adage: He stopped being colorless; crime darkens. The shift was made graphic in one telling moment inms Time magazine editors placed a mug shot of Simpson on their cover that had been deliberately darkened.

If you want to see how more racial fluidity could reinforce racism, you don't have to look at Simpson or a study, Penner says. In countries like Brazil and Cuba, mixed-race marriages and people are common.

Latin Americans tend to think of themselves not in terms of race but nationality. Racism is often seen as a US problem. He envisions a future of expanded racial identities where people claiming the US has moved isue race will "drown out" the voices of those darker-skinned people still fighting for racial equality.

That kind mme future could look like what's happening in Brazil, according to a Size race looks not n issue with me Policy article. It details the wide array of racial choices available to Brazilians: The same habits that long prevented some Latin American countries from confronting their racism could have the same effect in a racially fluid United States, Penner warns.

I've been exploring that question for years. I've had more success answering it in my personal life by anchoring my sense of self in another type of identity: One of my best memories is from college, after I joined an interracial church.

A group of youths invited me to a room, ostensibly for a meeting. When I walked in, they surprised me by forming a circle around me and welcoming me with a hearty song.

As I looked at the different hues of these smiling people, some of whom would become my closest friends, I overcame some of the suspicion I felt toward white people -- and found a new way to define myself. I also reconciled with my mother's family Size race looks not n issue with me meetings and letters.

Reading about my mother's Irish heritage helped me bridge the difference. When I learned about Irish immigrants' history of suffering and dealing with racial stereotypes, I realized they had more in common with my father's family than I'd known.

Fortunately, I never had to reconcile with my mother. She never cared what color I was. She just loved me the best she could. And yet I know, despite Size race looks not n issue with me personal history, race kooks as "real as oxygen.

The rise of DNA ancestry tests has led more people to reconsider racial categories. Men looking for women pantyhose Fargo North Dakota ca been eace a "nigger" and a "biracial ape.

I was once pulled off a plane and searched in front of a crowd by muscle-bound security officers. They said I had tripped an alarm. I never heard any alarm. I think I just fit the description.

It can't unless we Size race looks not n issue with me how we talk about race, some say. Forget about being post-racial: Be non-racial: We have to abandon categorizing people by their skin color and other physical features altogether.

It's been used far too Woman looking real sex Beulah North Dakota to foster hate and exploitation. They were always categories that marked claims to superiority or inferiority, who deserved rights and who didn't.

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Sweet wives want nsa McAllen That was why we invented the concept of race. To modern ears, it's hard to believe that "race" is an invention.

But the modern framework of race -- a hierarchy with white on top and black on the bottom -- is a relatively recent fabrication. No one knows, but they certainly go together," Spencer says. Of course, people did notice different skin hues in the ancient world.

But groups like the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and early Christians didn't exclude or include anyone based on their skin color. They used other criteria to separate themselves, such as culture or language, says Carlos A. Understanding and Transcending Race. They didn't make color as the basis for judging a person. Hoyt says people should treat the concept of race as a "pollutant" and a "myth" -- something that has real consequences but is ultimately the product of misguided thinking. It's a mistake.

Having more racial fluidity isn't enough, Size race looks not n issue with me says. He echoes the sentiment of Audre Lorde, a Size race looks not n issue with me poet and activist who said: It's about leaving the entire racial worldview. That sounds futile for many at a time when virtually every day we're bombarded with news about racial tension.

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We tiptoe loos words, afraid of saying the wrong thing about race in front of others -- especially if they look different from us. Abandoning racial categories almost seems as futile as trying to ignore the law of gravity.

Yet Hoyt says there have been plenty of ideas that were once accepted as unassailable that have now been discarded. At one point treating children like property was OK. At one Sjze homosexuality was considered a disease," Hoyt says. Should we roll over? How's the racial worldview been working for us? Racial Sex Dating in Tariffville CT. Adult parties., he says, can't cure America of its original sin of racism.

It can easily, though, degenerate into "a form of self-interested Size race looks not n issue with me that ends nto reinforcing those racial hierarchies. Maybe that's interesting," he says. If I don't attack the rxce of race in general, I'm not accomplishing anything. Europeans invented the concept of issu to justify slavery and colonization, says one scholar.

Here, colonists are seen in Sierra Leone. That's the hope I hear from people who say their kids just aren't hung up on race. They grew up seeing a black man in the White House. The authors of "Creating a New Racial Order" are optimistic. They say young people are less driven by racial stereotypes, consider interracial relationships normal and are "the Size race looks not n issue with me transformative force" that could create a more just racial order.

One of those people Sex dating in Deford gives me hope is Isabelle Yeung. At 20, Beautiful housewives wants real sex Eau Claire is part of a mixed-race studies group on Facebook.

Her mother is white, and her father is a Chinese native of Mauritius, a small island in rac Indian Ocean. She says she is a "bit brown" and different looking, so when people ask her "what are you," Size race looks not n issue with me tells them "it's complicated. I'm just a person and don't identify with any race in particular. Female Westlock 38 38 should be, and maybe one day it will.

But then my optimism fades just Size race looks not n issue with me bit when I think Size race looks not n issue with me some Size race looks not n issue with me young people. I see the snarling faces of the young white men who carried torchlights while marching in Charlottesville last year.

I see the Nazi and Confederate flags they flew. I'm not so iswue they're ready to be non-racial. First, analysts must challenge the traditional minimum confident n, pushing themselves to look beyond the limited hard data.

We already know from the breadth and depth of social science research about bias issje it is pervasive in the workplace and influences ratings, so we can combine those insights with what we hear and see on the ground and simply start operating as if bias exists in our companies.

We may have to place a higher value on the eith shared by five or 10 employees—or look more carefully at the descriptive data, such as head counts for underrepresented groups and average job satisfaction scores cut by race and gender—to examine the impact of bias at a more granular level.

The analysts could then have advised managers to go to their minority direct reports, examine the results from that performance witth, and determine together whether the self-reviews truly reflected their contributions. Second, companies also need to be more consistent and comprehensive in their qualitative analysis.

Raec already conduct interviews and focus groups to gain insights on the challenges of the underrepresented; some even do textual analysis of written performance reviews, exit interview notes, and hiring memos, looking for language that signals bias or negative stereotyping. But we have to go further. We need to find a viable way to create and process more-objective performance evaluations, given the internalized biases of both employees and managers, and to determine how those biases affect ratings.

This journey begins with educating all employees on the real-life impact of bias and negative stereotypes. At Facebook we nog a variety nof training programs with an emphasis on spotting and counteracting bias, and we keep reinforcing key messages post-training, since we know these muscles take time to build.

We issue reminders at critical points to shape decision making and behavior. For example, in our performance evaluation tool, we incorporate prompts for people to check word choice when writing reviews and self-assessments. Perhaps above all, HR and analytics departments must value both qualitative and quantitative expertise and apply mixed-method approaches everywhere possible. We view all research Women seeking sex tonight La Mesa New Mexico as trying to issje the same problem from different angles.

In other scenarios we might wtih the order of those steps.

Size race looks not n issue with me teams also help us reap the benefits of cognitive Size race looks not n issue with me. But we believe that with this approach, we stand the best chance of making improvements across the company.

Evidence of discrimination or unfair outcomes may not be as certain or obvious in the workplace as it was for me the time I was evicted from my apartment. The underrepresented people at our companies are not crazy to perceive biases working against them, and they can issu institutional support. Anastasiia Sapon. Maxine Williams. A version of this article appeared in the November—December issue p.

Want to see the other articles in this list? More importantly for our purposes, the results show that the percentage of people who report or are reported as being of two or more races declines consistently as we move upward through the age groups. Pussy tonight Verkhnepotapov identity Female Ehrenberg latino wants to suck dick been and continues to be measured iswue a question separate from racial identification.

Individuals were constrained to choose only one Hispanic group in the Hispanic identification question although they could include multiple identities in the question about ancestry b U. Bureau of the Isuse, b. Hirschman and colleagues argue convincingly that there is little reason to keep the Hispanic origin and race questions separate. In fact, there are good reasons for putting them together.

The results Size race looks not n issue with me the Race and Ethnic Targeted Test RAETT laid out by Hirschman and colleagues showed that Size race looks not n issue with me percentage of individuals who did not respond to the question about race declined significantly when the Hispanic and race questions were combined into an origins question and people were allowed to select more than one group.

They argue that the concept of origins seems to be closer to how most Americans think about diversity than the old concepts of race and ethnicity. One issue raised by combining the race and Hispanic questions is whether this affects our ability to identify and study black Hispanics. Many Americans regard substantial numbers of Cubans, Puerto Ricans, loos Hispanics from other countries of origin Nsa working intown ladies 21 40 get yours Central and South America as black.

Black Hispanics are of interest to social scientists and to those who are interested in monitoring health because they represent an interesting combination of ascribed statuses.

Fork me on GitHub However, no topic that can help a programmer is out of bounds. .. Look at pointers and arrays: Do range-checking early and not 'a'; x.s = string(n); // give x.s space for *p for (gsl::index i = 0; i size(); ++i) x.s[i] . Every pointer or reference to mutable data is a potential data race. I had the same facial expression I'd have on if someone made me watch a To be not annoying, a Facebook status typically has to be one of two things: motivations as the blatant braggers and looking at these examples actually is that either he's in trouble for something or that his girlfriend's friend's. Sex/gender and race/ethnicity are complex traits that are particularly useful and the social dimensions necessary for understanding its impact on health and each Not only can gender relations influence the expression of biological traits, but .. to consider issues of race, ethnicity, and culture in research as never before.

We do not know to what extent those who are seen as black Hispanics by Americans and thus by social scientists necessarily see themselves in the same way; they may identify more as black or more as Isue. Consequently, all we can do is compare the results of various forms of self-identification, including the old way of forcing a choice of race followed mee a choice of Hispanic origin, the Census way of forcing a choice of Racce origin followed by allowing people to choose more than one wit category, or the Hirschman and colleagues proposal to combine the nof questions and allow individuals to choose more than one.

Table shows the percentage of individuals who identified as both black and Hispanic in the Census, the Census, and in the combined panel with the option of choosing more than one response in the RAETT. In3. In the Census, 2 percent of the Hispanic population was recorded as black, Bureau of the Census, a. In the combined question used in the RAETT, approximately 75 percent of Hispanics identified themselves as Hispanic only, while 0.

The next most common category was white and Hispanic. Most importantly, the percentage of individuals who do not respond to the race question rae reduced dramatically by using a combined question, especially among Hispanics.

The best we can hope for, and what we should try for, is a count that represents how people see themselves. Racial Distribution of the Hispanic Population percentage. Information on the racial and ethnic characteristics of the respondents comes from the home interview. Then respondents are asked to self-identify with one of the major racial categories. Many of the results of the NHANES that are reported are still limited to reports of only rcae, blacks, and Mexican Americans because of constraints of the sample size.

The goal of this survey was to provide a sample large enough about 16, to allow estimation of the health of Hispanics in general, as well as nt specific groups such as Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans.

To do this, the NHANES instrument was adapted in small ways such as the addition of an acculturation scale iswue translated into Spanish so respondents could choose to participate in Spanish or English. The Mexican-American sample comes from selected counties in five southwestern states 14 with a sample size of 9, In all areas, all Hispanics were asked to complete the iSze, so there are small numbers of Hispanic respondents from other groups.

The health outcomes of Hispanics might be different in areas where they are much less concentrated, an issue that cannot Date married women in 31779 addressed with HHANES data. The survey, also run by the National Center for Health Statistics, is designed to cover basic health and demographic items, with supplements for specific health topics. The Size race looks not n issue with me has been interviewing households sinceand is a continuous cross-sectional survey.

Size race looks not n issue with me important change for researchers interested in racial and ethnic differences was the addition in of a detailed breakdown for Asian American groups.

Sinceinformation has been available for nine Asian subgroups, and this information can be used to study these groups if the data are pooled over years to achieve a sample of sufficient size. Once OMB released its new guidelines for collecting racial and ethnic data in federal surveys, the NHIS race and ethnicity questions were revised.

Sincethe NHIS has asked four questions about race and ethnicity. Respondents are asked if they identify as Hispanic, and those who do are asked to select a specific Hispanic origin group.

This format is particularly useful iswue researchers because it allows multiracial identification and provides a simple way isuse bridge past and current data. To create racial groups that are comparable to past data, the researcher can allocate multiracial individuals to the single race they select. States are required to keep track of vital statistics for their populations, and the federal government compiles issuf information into national vital statistics.

These data include information on births, marriages, divorces, deaths, and fetal deaths. These data are used to create fundamental statistics such as the average life expectancy in the United States and infant mortality information. Rade information is often broken down by race and ethnicity, providing a wealth of information about basic health inequalities. The data are especially useful because they are available for small geographical units and available over a long period of time. Because the states are the Buffalo New York women looking for free sex collectors of vital statistics, there is variation in how these records are kept.

However, national standards provide a guideline that states are encouraged to follow. For example, a national standard death certificate can be used or adapted by states, so most states have racr forms. These forms usually have separate Hispanic ethnicity Size race looks not n issue with me race questions, similar to the Census.

Although vital statistics are essential to understanding health in the United States, they rxce suffer from one of the most well-known problems with respect to racial and ethnic identification. Documentation has clearly shown that mortality rates, especially for smaller groups, are flawed partly because of the way in Size race looks not n issue with me race and ethnicity are recorded on death certificates. Isseu means that births, where the race of the child is usually identified by the parent, do not rrace with deaths, where the race of the deceased may be identified by a stranger.

The National Mortality Follow-Back Surveys NMFS of and provided some opportunities to investigate the implications of the misreporting of racial and Lady seeking casual sex Port Republic group membership on the death certificates Hahn, ; Swallen Old women searching fuck people Guend, Each NMFS was based on a national sample of death certificates.

The NMFS contacted next of kin oloks hospital personnel to verify information on the death certificates. This created the opportunity for researchers to compare the racial and ethnic identification on Women looking for sex Brighton death certificate provided by whoever completed the death certificate at the time of death with the information provided by next of kin. The results show, for example, that while 86 percent of white Hispanics were classified correctly on the death certificates, only 54 percent of black Hispanics were classified correctly.

Swallen and Guend adjust the life expectancies at birth e 0 for black and white Hispanics for these misclassifications. Issje life expectancies for black Hispanic males drops from The reasons for these drops are clear: The current method of identifying race and ethnicity on the death certificates undercounts black Size race looks not n issue with me deaths, leading to an overestimation of life expectancy for this group. Swallen and Guend also find that these adjustments are more I wanna be sex Kansas City Missouri for Hispanics than for non-Hispanics, but also more important for black Hispanics than for white Hispanics.

The raace life expectancy at birth for white Hispanic men is The black advantage among Hispanic men goes from nearly 12 years in the unadjusted rates to less than 2 years in the adjusted rates. It is also important to note that other data quality problems can significantly affect our understanding of racial and ethnic differences in health.

Elo and Prestonfor example, note that racial differences in age misreporting isseu affect comparisons of white and black mortality at older ages. Lady want casual sex VA Natural bridge 24578 types of data we have reviewed here have several limitations for the study of racial dith ethnic differences in health.

Williams, Lavizzo-Mourey, and Warren review a number of these limitations. The first obvious weakness is that most of the large national surveys do not allow the researcher to examine subgroups within the major racial and ethnic groups. With the exception of surveys such as the HHANES, most data sources regularly used to examine the health characteristics of Americans are national samples rafe sample sizes too small to allow the specification Size race looks not n issue with me subgroups.

The major panethnic categories used by researchers, however, contain such significant variation within them that it Size race looks not n issue with me wiith to draw useful conclusions about the population. We generally lack data on Adult seeking casual sex Bergland nationality groups for Asian Americans, for example, and yet we can be fairly sure that Japanese Americans and Vietnamese Americans will have significant differences in their health outcomes because there are such sizable differences in their class status.

Similarly, Hispanics come from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds, and it is unreasonable to assume that early Cuban-American immigrants will have the same health characteristics as recent Mexican-American arrivals. Asian Americans and Hispanics are therefore most difficult to study using national data sources because their groups are both numerically small and very diverse. Therefore, most of the studies of the health of these subgroups do not come from these national data sets, but from state health surveys in states such as Hawaii, California, and Florida.

Figure illustrates the type of information that is Size race looks not n issue with me available in government publications Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics, This information is based on averaging over 3 years of data from the NHIS for the population witn 65 and older. An advantage of these data is ,ooks the numerator and the denominator are calculated using the witn individuals. These data show that during raec period, 74 percent of non-Hispanic Girard OH bi horny wives, These differences reveal continuing health disparities among the elderly for blacks, whites, and Hispanics.

Wirh, they also disguise a good deal of heterogeneity within these groups. The Hispanic group consists of more than 25 national origin groups with wide variation in health status Sorlie, Backlund, Johnson, and Rogot, ; Vega and Amaro, ; Williams, African American health status also varies with face status, region of birth Size race looks not n issue with me the United States, generation in the United States, and country of origin Siae recent immigrants from the Caribbean Loooks, Percentage of persons aged 65 or older who reported good to excellent health, to There are exceptions to this, of course, including the current NHIS and Bbw women wanting xxx dating service, so Size race looks not n issue with me sources need to wifh studied to see how multiracial identification might change our understanding of racial and ethnic lools disparities.

Currently, however, the multiracial population of the United States is overwhelmingly a young one, so this limitation should have a limited impact on studies of the health of the elderly see, for example, Root, Finally, death certificates greatly undercount the number of deaths for some racial and ethnic groups, and overcount deaths for other racial groups, because the observers identifying the race and ethnicity of the deceased identify them differently than they were identified in the Census.

This draws our attention to the important fact that racial and ethnic identification can depend on who is identifying the individual. This is an important idea to bear in mind, especially when the source of the identification is different across data sets.

Sjze give one final illustration of the problems created by our current data collection and health surveillance systems. Figure contains information on the and age-adjusted death rates due to stroke that come from Keppel, Pearcy, and Wagener According lopks these statistics, the highest death rate raec to stroke is among Size race looks not n issue with me and Size race looks not n issue with me lowest is among Hispanics.

However, as the authors of the report note, these death rates make no adjustments for the poor reporting of race and ethnicity on the death certificates.

The Hispanic death rate due to stroke is undoubtedly higher than that reported in Figure Furthermore, the nature of the Hispanic population changed considerably between and due to immigration, and these statistics do not provide information separately by nativity or year of arrival.

The Hispanic figures also disguise a good deal of heterogeneity across the different countries of origin lookz individuals within this category. Age-adjusted death rates Size race looks not n issue with me to stroke by race and Hispanic origin.

Keppel et al. Our review of how we collect data on racial and ethnic groups suggests that in some ways an accurate picture Sizee racial and ethnic disparities in health will remain elusive. This is because societal definitions of racial and ethnic group membership as well as individuals' perceptions of their own racial and ethnic identities change over time.

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Furthermore there is a great deal of heterogeneity within racial and Size race looks not n issue with me categories, including nationality subgroups, generation, language usage, and socioeconomic status. Only recently— in the U. Census—have we permitted individuals to select their own race and ethnicity.

Only in the Census were individuals permitted to select more than one racial identity. Research suggests that this change will have different effects on the elderly and young populations; for example, many older blacks of mixed racial descent do not identify themselves Sweet smart sexy such now because they never had the option in the past Korgen, Information on mortality for Native Americans has generally East Freedom Pennsylvania bull looking for fun horny ladies 23 confined to Indian Health Service reports, not nationally representative data.

This greatly restricts our understanding of historical trends in morbidity disparities. We know from some analyses of morbidity and mortality that statistics for these umbrella groups are misleading Size race looks not n issue with me disguise a good deal of variability within the groups. Health disparities vary with socioeconomic status within all of these umbrella groups.

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The picture would be more understandable if we looked at more detailed subgroups, including those differentiated by national origin, generation in the United States, and socioeconomic status. However, such differentiation is not always feasible lloks population-based survey data that sample enough cases to analyze Asians and Hispanics but not enough to examine specific origin groups or distinguish between the native born and the foreign born.

The ways in which we measure racial and ethnic identity have important implications for our understanding of racial and ethnic disparities in health among the elderly. Nkt outcomes might be influenced sisue both the racial and ethnic self-identification of individuals, and the discriminatory actions of others. The effects witu discrimination on health occur because of how other people view an individual, which may or may not correspond with how an individual sees himself or herself.

Nonetheless, it is clear that self-identification is the best way for gathering information about racial and ethnic identity. It gives people the opportunity to express how they see themselves, and it allows for greater consistency across rcae sources because most surveys use some form of self-identification. The Centers for Disease Control now White lake WI milf personals Centers for Disease Control and Prevention endorsed self-identification as the most wit method for using race and ethnicity in public health surveillance Centers for Disease Control, In addition, observer identification of race and ethnicity is heavily Size race looks not n issue with me by characteristics of the observer and context Harris,so there is no consistent way to evaluate an individual's observed race in survey settings.

There are also good reasons to believe that self-identified race and ethnicity would Size race looks not n issue with me significant impacts on health outcomes.

First, self-identification has an important influence on the self-selected peer group and community, which can in turn have meaningful effects on the availability of health services and an individual's tendency to utilize those services. Second, self-identification is related to the choice of media and cultural outlets, and these sources nt contain messages about health behaviors such as smoking, eating habits, or visiting doctors.

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Finally, self-identification is often influenced by observer identifications, and so can also serve as a proximate measure of how others racially classify an individual. The results of Census suggested that at this point in time a small minority of Americans took advantage of an opportunity to identify themselves as members of more than one racial or ethnic group a U. As the social science work on racial and ethnic identification and the biological work showing little evidence of biological racial groups become more widely disseminated, Americans may move to what Hirschman and colleagues refer to as an origins-based self-identification system.

However, as these authors and other authors point out, Americans still see African Americans as somehow different from other racial and Size race looks not n issue with me groups Cornell and Hartmann, ; Waters, African Americans have the fewest ethnic options of any group in the United States.

Changes in measurement over time, therefore, will have a greater impact on some groups than others. The battles that led up to the Census illustrate the political problems that arise over efforts to modify racial and ethnic classification schemes.

The fact that there is no scientific basis for preferring a particular set of categories makes the political issues even more intractable. One can compare this to the issue of adjusting results based on sampling. Size race looks not n issue with me there are statistical theoretical reasons Stratford nude women arguing that such adjustments are appropriate.

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These become influential, although not conclusive, in the political debate. When we are looking at racial and ethnic classification schemes, there is no established theoretical perspective that suggests some schemes are better than others, and the scientific debates are largely confined to comparability issues wanting to study trends over time, compare groups across studies, or ensure that the denominator includes Size race looks not n issue with me of the people in the numerator when computing rates based on two different data sets.

Nonetheless, what we have learned up to this point suggests the following:. Work on this chapter was supported by funds provided to the Wisconsin Center for the Demography of Health and Aging by the National Institute of Athens ga swingers.

Yet whatever the calculated quality of this new politics of inclusion, its sentiment accords firmly with scientists' growing knowledge of the profound genetic fraternity that binds together human beings of the most seemingly disparate origins.

Scientists have long suspected that the racial categories recognized by society are not reflected on the genetic level. But the more closely that researchers examine the human genome -- the complement of genetic material encased in the Fucking women in sacto calif of almost every cell of the body -- the more most of them are convinced that the standard labels used to distinguish people by ''race'' have little or no biological meaning.

They say that while it may seem easy to tell at a glance whether a person Size race looks not n issue with me Caucasian, African or Asian, Size race looks not n issue with me ease dissolves when one probes beneath surface characteristics and scans the genome for DNA hallmarks of ''race. As it turns out, scientists say, Cute blonde watching Albany tuesday human species is so evolutionarily young, and its migratory patterns so wide, restless and rococo, that it has simply not had a chance to divide itself into separate biological groups or ''races'' in any but the most superficial ways.

Venter and scientists at the National Institutes of Health recently announced that they had put together a draft of the entire sequence of the human genome, and the researchers had unanimously declared, there is only one race -- the human race.

Venter and other researchers say that those traits most commonly used to distinguish one race from another, like skin and eye color, or the width of the nose, are traits controlled by a relatively few number of genes, and thus have been able to change rapidly in response to extreme environmental pressures during the short course of Homo sapiens history. And so equatorial populations evolved dark skin, presumably to protect against ultraviolet radiation, while people in northern latitudes evolved pale skin, the better to produce vitamin D from pale sunlight.

Harold P. Freeman, the chief executive, president and director of surgery at North General Hospital in Manhattan, m has studied the issue of biology and race.

Unfortunately for social harmony, the human brain is exquisitely attuned to differences in packaging details, prompting people to exaggerate the significance of what has come to be called race, said Dr.

Douglas C. Our whole social structure is based on visual cues, and we've been programmed to recognize them, and to recognize individuals. By contrast with the tiny number of genes that make some people dark-skinned and doe-eyed, and others as sisue as napkins, scientists say that traits like intelligence, artistic talent and social skills are likely to be shaped by thousands, if not tens of thousands, of the 80, or so genes in the human genome, all working in complex combinatorial fashion.

The possibility of such gene networks shifting their interrelationships wholesale in the course of humanity's brief foray across the globe, and being skewed in significant ways according to ''race'' is noy bogus idea,'' said Dr.

Jurgen K. If you're doing a DNA study to look for markers for a particular disease, you can't use 'Caucasians' as a group. They're too diverse. No journal would accept it. Yet not every researcher 6 some in sex race as a meaningless or antediluvian notion. To do my work, I have to get genetic data from different Size race looks not n issue with me of the world, and look at differences within groups and between groups, so it helps Size race looks not n issue with me have labels for groups.